The Graduate School of Public Administration (GSPA) was established in 1955 as Thailand’s first graduate school offering graduate-level courses in public administration. Over the five decades, GSPA’s study programs have been committed to continuously improve its courses to be relevant to the current societal conditions and requirements. Graduates from GSPA hold important positions in various public and private sector careers and are known to help contribute to Thailand’s development.

Establishment of GSPA

The Graduate School of Public Administration is the first graduate school in Thailand offering graduate-level courses in public administration. GSPA was established as part of Thammasart University under Royal Decree (พระราชกฤษฎีกา) effective July 6, 1955 under the initiative of leading Thai scholars, namely Dr. Malai Huwanan and Mr. Chao Pattanacharoon, and with the sponsorship from General Por. Piboonsongkram (President of Thammasart University at the time), along with assistance from Indiana University.
        With the agreement between Thammasart University and Indiana University, GSPA was established under Thammasart University and started to offer graduate-level courses in 1956. Faculty members from Indiana University helped design and teach the early curriculum and courses until 1963.


            On April 1, 1966, the National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA) was established by the Royal Thai Government as stipulated in the National Institute of Development Administration Act B.E. 2509 (1996). The Graduate School of Public Administration became one of its founding schools. The GSPA has been producing graduates in public administration and started offering a Ph.D. program in Public Administration in the first semester of academic year 1984. Since the second semester of academic year 1987 GSPA has been offering this Ph.D. program on a part-time basis also.

In 1992, with the rising demand at the Master’s Degree level, the GSPA expanded its operations to include campuses in different regions of Thailand. It foresaw benefits of offering citizens in remote areas the opportunity to earn a Master’s Degree in their local areas. The GSPA collaborated with the Teacher’s College of Uttaradit (Uttaradit Rajabhat University) and the Teacher’s College of Nakhon Ratchasima (Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University) in offering a Master’s Degree Program in Development Administration. These programs were met with positive response and demand has continued to grow from people in nearby areas. In 1991, GSPA opened additional campuses in Surath Thani province in the southern part of Thailand, and later in Ubon Ratchathani province in the Northeast, in Lampang province in the North, and in Hatyai (Songkhla province) in the South. In 1994, the GSPA further expanded with campuses in Phuket and Udon Thani provinces and later added Lamphun Campus, Phitsanulok Campus, and Chonburi Campus. Based on demand and GSPA’s teaching capacities different campuses were opened or shut down accordingly. As of 2014, the GSPA has six regional campuses in Phitsanulok, Nakorn Ratchasima, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Chonburi, Surat Thani, and Songkhla provinces. The GSPA has continued developing its educational standards such as curricula, school buildings, and the use of new technologies in order to improve educational quality.

   Aside from the master’s and doctoral programs, the GSPA also offers other academics services. The Mini Master of Management Program (12-week-program) commenced in 1991 and has graduated 57 classes up to 2014. The program has been well received by high-level executives in the private sector. Upon request, the GSPA also organizes in-house training for many organizations. For example, they organized an Executive Training in Agricultural and Cooperative Development in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Similar training programs are still being organized for various Thai and foreign organizations.

To bring our academic services to the international level and to strive to become the leader in Development Administration Education in South-East Asia, in 1993, GSPA started offering the International Ph.D. Program in Development Administration targeting students from various countries in the region. The program was developed from the Thai language program and was approved by the Institution’s Council and the Ministry of University Affairs.


As a result of experiences with the Mini Master of Management program, which offers individuals from various fields, both from the public and private sectors, the opportunity to attend a short-term executive degree program, the GSPA developed its Master’s Degree in Public and Private Management. It is designed to facilitate students to exchange their knowledge, experiences, and opinions which will lead to more fruitful collaboration in the future. The program started the regular program in the second semester of academic year 1996. Later in the second semester of academic year 1997, GSPA organized part-time programs in Bangkok and Sikew Campus, Nakorn Ratchasima province. An experiment to develop its Master of Public and Private Management (MPPM) program to be an international program in 2001 failed due to low demand. It has produced graduates in the field of Public and Private Management since 2001. 

               The GSPA places a great deal of emphasis on academic excellence, especially producing opinion leaders to develop the administrative system both at public and private organizations along with non-profit organizations. Also, there is an emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge that emanates from morality.

 A Short History of the IU-NIDA Partnership
 Professr Patrick O’Meara*



              The growth of the School of Public Administration at NIDA over the past fifty years has been remarkable. On my visit to NIDA in January 2005, I was impressed with the quality of the faculty, the excellent facilities, and the outstanding students. Today, NIDA is a major presence in higher education in Thailand.

              As a political scientist and a faculty member in Indiana University’s School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA), I was particularly pleased to see first-hand the impact and presence of the School of Public Administration. The role of public administrators in society is of crucial importance. Only too often, we forget that public administrators are at the intersection point between government and the people. In many ways, because their lives are devoted to implementing policies, these administrators and officials more deeply and directly affect people than do those in other branches of government. Their commitment to the profession and their integrity are of vital importance; their effectiveness and responsiveness are essential for good governance.


 * I wish to ackcnowledge Assistant Dean Dr. Roxana Ma Newman for her substantial contribution in preparing this paper.


             As I sat at the graduation ceremony and saw the 2004 graduates, one after another, walking onto the platform to receive their diplomas, I thought of the thousands before them who had received degrees. Those graduates went into the towns and cities of Thailand where they influenced and affected public policies and touched the lives of millions of citizens. For me, seeing the graduates was indeed a moving experience because they reminded of the contributory role that Indiana University (IU) played in setting up the School. We at IU, in turn, have also benefited by our involvement with NIDA and by the students who came to study at IU. I have been fortunate to have had Thai graduate students in my political science and SPEA classes and to have supervised or served on several doctoral committees.

             Why is it important to remember the past? I believe we can learn a great deal from these early years. The vision to build, the courage to make major decisions, and the tenacity required to implement them should continue to guide future growth at NIDA.

An Early Contact  

                Indiana University’s visionary President and Chancellor, the late Herman B Wells, gives a vivid account in his autobiography, Being Lucky, of his first official contact with Thailand, “one of the most interesting countries in the world” (1980:245). That encounter took place in October, 1948. The Permanent Under Secretary for Education in the Ministry of Education, H E Mom Luang Pin Malakul was in the United States on his way to a UNESCO conference in Beirut, and stopped in Bloomington to visit two Thai students who were pursuing advanced degrees in IU’s School of Education. He was received in style as the official guest of the university and had stimulating discussions with Dr. Wells about higher education and other aspects of development in Thailand.

The Mid-1950s: IU and Teacher Training in Thailand

                In the early mid-fifties, Thailand turned its attention to strengthening the quality of its teacher training institutions. Around that same period, the U.S. government became more sensitive to the development needs of Southeast Asian countries. The International Cooperation Administration (ICA), a precursor of the Agency for International Development (AID), recruited Willis Porter, a professor at a state teacher’s college in New York, to go to Thailand to assess their system of teacher training and to recommend a course of action for modernizing the system. The report recommended that Indiana University’s School of Education undertake the project, which envisioned the development of a national school of teacher education for the whole of Thailand. Preliminary work toward negotiating a contract took place during 1953, enhanced by a visit to Thailand by IU’s Walter Laves of the Department of Government—who was to have a pivotal role later in helping Thailand develop a school of public administration.

                In 1954, an agreement was drawn up between IU’s School of Education, the Prasan Mitr College of Education in Bangkok, and the Thai Ministry of Education, with funding provided by the U.S. Foreign Operations Administration (FOA). IU’s dean of the School of Education, Wendell Wright, spent several weeks in Thailand working with personnel there to develop a four-year program leading to a Bachelor’s degree. Dean Wright made a commitment to assign top-level people to work on the contract and hired Porter to join the IU education faculty to head the project in Thailand, where he remained for the first three years. In the total eight–year life of the IPA contract, 32 professional and staff members, mostly senior faculty members from IU, were sent to Thailand for periods ranging from several months to several years. Later, Prasan Mitr became the premier campus of Srinakharinwirot University, a comprehensive institution with several campuses throughout Thailand (IU 1954).

               In that same year of 1954, IU’s School of Education also established a graduate program in the Department of Education at the Faculty of Arts at Chulalongkorn University. That department later became a full-fledged Faculty of Education.

Establishing the Institute of Public Administration at Thammasat University

             In the mid-1950s, the U.S. government, through the FOA, also began to offer technical assistance programs to transfer U.S. knowledge and technology to strengthen the governmental infrastructures of many developing nations, in particular, by helping to establish institutes of public administration in various parts of the world (Laohavichien, 1984:50).

                During its involvement with the College of Education at Prasan Mitr, IU also began negotiations with the Thai government to offer a program in public administration, as a result of Walter Laves’ earlier visit to Bangkok in 1953. IU was to provide personnel to advise and train staff for a new institute of public administration and to give guidance on its organization, teaching methods, library development, research and consultative services, publications program, and conference and training programs.

               On May 3, 1955, Indiana University signed a $1.5 million contract to establish an Institute of Public Administration (IPA) at Thammasat University in Bangkok. The contract was sponsored and financed by the Agency for International Development (AID) through the FOA, and by the Government of Thailand. It provided for a three-year cooperative arrangement between the two universities to train graduate students for the Master’s in Public Administration degree. The contract was signed in Washington D.C. by IU President Wells and by Thailand’s Prime Minister P. Pibulsonggram, also Rector of Thammasat University, who was in the United States on an official visit at the invitation of President Eisenhower. The objectives of the contract (IU 1955:1) were to:

  • strengthen the academic program of Thammasat University in public administration;
  • expand the research, extension, and staff training programs of the university;
  • develop in-service training programs and facilities at the university for government 
  • provide training in the United States for a number of Thai students.

              IU’s Walter Laves, chair of the Department of Government who had been in Bangkok two years earlier to explore possibilities for public administration training, was responsible for working out the exchange agreement and directing the program. Under the terms of the contract, Thai graduate students came each year to IU for special training and IU sent specialists in various fields to Thammasat for stays of up to nine months. Said Laves of the historic signing:IU welcomes the opportunity to join with Thammasat University in the strengthening of the latter’s program in public administration. Manifold benefits will accrue to both the participating universities and the governments involved. Moreover, IU will have an added role in the current struggle of the free nations of Southeast Asia to erect a bastion of freedom and stability in that part of the world.(Indiana Daily Student: 1955).

             IU’s chief of party at Thammasat was Joseph Sutton, a professor of government who later became President of IU from 1968 to 1971. Lynton Caldwell, a professor of public administration and political science, served as coordinator of the program on the Bloomington campus.


              Between 1955 and 1962, IU again demonstrated the depth of its commitment to this project. It sent 45 people to Thailand, 31 on two-year assignments and 10 on short-term consultancies (Wells 1980:248). A small number of advanced graduate students also went to Bangkok to assist with the work at the IPA and to conduct research for their doctoral degrees. John W. Ryan, who became president of IU in 1971, went there between 1955 and 1957 to finish his Ph.D. dissertation on
“Bangkok Government and Administration: Appearance and Reality.”To this day, Ryan remains a life-long friend

of Thailand. IU’s political science professor William Siffin also served for three years from early 1957 to the end of 1959, teaching and advising at both the IPA and Chulalongkorn University, and wrote an important study (1966) on Thailand’s bureaucracy and administrative structures.

             In late 1962, IU’s President Wells was recognized by the Thai government for his leadership in committing the university’s resources to the two technical assistance programs at Prasan Mitr and Thammasat University. Wells was honored with the title of the Thailand Government Award of Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant, one of the Thailand’s highest decorations. Throughout these years, Dr. Wells made a number of trips to Thailand to lend encouragement to the IPA project and to maintain ties of friendship with Thai leaders. In 1968, Dr. Wells received further distinction by being named the Thailand Knight Commander (second class) of the Most Noble Order of the Crown.

A Developmental Model for Administration

              In other sectors of the Thai government during 1962, the Central Statistical Office of Thailand’s National Economic Development Board (NEDB) organized a program of in-service training in statistics, mainly to government employees, a program that was the precursor of a master’s level degree in statistics that was to emerge a few years later. That same year, the Economic Research Division of the NEDB initiated a program in development economics “to help prepare officials who have assignments directly related to Thailand’s Economic Development Plan to contribute usefully to its detailed formulation and execution” (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:4). Later that year, the Thai Government took steps to unite these three distinct entities—the IPA, Central Statistical Office, and Economic Research Division—into a single expanded and upgraded institute stressing national development. That year, the November 2505 Resolution of the Council of Ministers directed that plans be formulated for establishing such an essentially autonomous institute.

              However, by the early 1960s, American AID support was declining due to changing U.S. priorities in regard to Thailand, funding cutbacks, and other factors, so that American and Thai advisors began to approach the Ford Foundation for support to create this newly planned institute. On July 14, 1963, Deputy Minister of the Ministry of  National Development, Dr. Bunchana Attakor, wrote Ford Foundation’s representative in Southeast Asia to request that the foundation appoint a preliminary team “to work out, in collaboration with the Governing Council, a comprehensive plan for a National Institute of Development Administration.” The Foundation responded by appointing such a team, deeming “the idea of such an institute [to be] basically sound in the existing Thai setting” (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:5). In 1963, there were other discussions that took place between H E King Bhumibol Adulyadej and David Rockefeller of the Rockefeller Foundation regarding the King’s vision for Thailand’s development, which included establishing an advanced educational institute that would produce graduates who could serve the country as “agents of national development change.”

             During these years, it was becoming evident that a shift was taking place regarding what the core curriculum of “public administration” was in contrast to what was emerging in the area of “developmental administration.” As described by Dr. Uthai Laohavichien (1984:50ff), public administration knowledge was by its nature instrumental, emphasizing organization and management, public personnel administration, and public financial administration. At the time when NIDA was being conceptualized, a new curriculum was being sought which more closely responded to Thailand’s needs to produce graduates with a greater ability to respond to the social and political context in the service of national development.

               …A ‘development’ environment usually requires an administrative system which performs a ‘change’ function instead of a ‘maintenance’ function… [and] involves activities necessary to stimulate new ideas, policies, or procedures. The emphasis is on the process of change… (Laohavichien 1984: 51).

               Nearly two years later, after much planning and negotiation, the Ford Foundation offered a multi-year technical assistance grant to the Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities (MUCIA) to create this new national institute. Because Indiana University—one of five founding member universities of MUCIA—had worked so closely with the Thai government in achieving the goals of NIDA’s predecessor, the IPA, it was naturally chosen as the lead institution on the new project. IU political science professor Woodworth Thrombley, MUCIA’s first advisor, arrived in Bangkok at the end of 1965 to assist in drafting the NIDA Enabling Act, subsequently approved by the Thai Government on March 11, 1966, and that provided for the positions of Rector on April 17 and of Vice Rector on June 2 (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:5).  Dr. Bunchana became NIDA’s first Rector, and Dr. Choop Karnjanaprakorn its first Vice Rector.

Creation of the National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)

               The National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA) was established on April 1, 1966, by a royal proclamation of the National Institute of Development Administration Act, and backed with Ford Foundation funding and the combined academic weight of the MUCIA consortium. The official inauguration, which took place on July 22, 1966, was opened by Prime Minister and chairman of NIDA’s Governing Council, Field Marshall Thanon Kittikachorn (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:5).

The general objectives of NIDA were (Karnjanaprakorn et al., p. 1):
  • to provide education in administration and development;
  • to conduct research;
  • to promote technical knowledge in higher vocational skills.

               The act gave NIDA university status as well as departmental status in the Office of the Prime Minister. It provided for four disciplininary schools, one being the School of Public Administration—incorporating the IPA. The other three were the Schools of Business Administration, Development Economics, and Applied Statistics. The core curriculum was inter-disciplinary: all NIDA students were required to take five common courses with other schools. In a review of the core curriculum carried out later in 1969, the reviewer praised its superiority over previous curricula in these terms:

               (1) Particular emphasis is placed on the Thai setting and the unique aspects of Thai government, society, administrative system, finance, and economy. This material is presented in conjunction with relevant material from other developing countries in order to provide perspective. Since NIDA is expressly designed to fill Thai needs, this change is extremely important.

              (2) Greater attention is given to the specific problem and procedures of economic development and to the Thai system for accelerating development by national planning. (quoted in Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:27).

             In addition, three NIDA centers were established that built on the work of the earlier “bureaus” of the IPA: the Research Center; the Training Center; and the Development Document Center. Activities of these centers continued and expanded those of the earlier bureaus, including publication of the Journal of Public Administration, developing numerous and broad-based in-training programs for thousands of participants, and further developing a top-quality library to serve the research and teaching needs of all four schools. Each school was headed by a dean and each center by a director.

             From the beginning, NIDA also had another training center, the English Language Program, with its own director reporting directly to the Rector, NIDA’s chief administrator. It had always been foreseen that a knowledge and command of the English language was essential for students entering graduate studies in public administration, as so many of the textbooks and other study materials were written in English. Furthermore, English was seen as essential to those graduates hoping to advance to higher levels in the Thai government and bureaucracy (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:31).
           The administrative management of the Ford/MUCIA/IU project fell to IU’s Graduate School of Business, which had earlier been involved in the IPA program at Thammasat and also had academic strengths in business administration, applied statistics, and business economics.
           The objectives of the project were to be reached in three broad ways: through long-terms advisors to be supplemented by short-term consultants, training of NIDA faculty members at advanced degree levels; and provision of library books and equipment. (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:102).
            In addition to Thrombley, 13 other MUCIA advisors served the project between 1965 and 1973 for a total of 27 man-years at NIDA. Their major concerns were lecturing; assisting in curriculum and course development; selecting NIDA faculty and staff for fellowships to the United States to get advanced training; emphasizing the importance of research, and advising in other related areas.
            A major component of the Ford/MUCIA/IU project was the attention given to professional staff development, in the form of fellowships to study for at advanced degrees at IU and other U.S. universities. By April 1973, near the conclusion of the project, 25 NIDA staff members had returned from abroad with advanced degrees (Masters’, M.B.A., D.B.A., D.P.A., D.Ed., Ph.D.) in fields ranging from business, economics, education, political science, public administration, statistics, and sociology; 20 of these were sponsored by the Ford/MUCIA/IU project. Another 20 staff were expected to complete their degrees by 1976 (Karnjanaprakorn et al. 1974:103).
Celebration and Recognition of the IU-Thailand Partnership
           In a 1986 article they wrote for the Indiana Alumni Magazine to report on the 30th anniversary of the IU–IPA/NIDA educational partnership, IU alumni and NIDA administrators Dr. Amara Raksasataya and Dr. Chirawan Bhakdibutr remarked that during one year in the 1980s, “three-fifths of the governors of Thailand’s 72 provinces held degrees either from IU or the IPA. IPA and its successor NIDA have educated 3,300 master’s graduates and trained 1,500 of the Thai government’s top executives, including the prime minister, and more than a thousand of its diplomats” (1886:11).
            As part of that 30th anniversary, the IU Alumni Association of Thailand was officially dedicated, with an office at Sri Nakharinwirot University in Bangkok. To celebrate the occasion, then IU President John Ryan traveled to Bangkok to present the association with a ceremonial brass plaque. Also in attendance were W. George Pinnell, executive vice president of IU; Howard Schaller, executive dean of the business school; Dr. Amara, NIDA rector; and Dr. Bunchana, a former NIDA rector and Thai ambassador to the United States.
           In 1986, H E King Bhumibol Adulyadej awarded royal decorations to eleven IU administrators and faculty members who were so important in shaping public administration education in Thailand. Recipients were IU Chancellor Herman B Wells and IU President John Ryan, in addition to Woodworth Thrombley, William Siffin, Howard Schaller, George Pinnell, Lynton Caldwell, Lawrence McKibbin, Fred Riggs, Cecil Brett, and M. Ladd Thomas.
IU’s Thai Alumni
           At the time of the 30th IU-Thailand anniversary, it was estimated that there were about 425 Thai alumni of Indiana University. Thai students currently at IU in 2005 represent the 4th generation of Thais who are being educated in Bloomington.
         Among the distinguished Thai students who were trained in the United States is Dr. Amara, who completed an M.A. in political science in 1957 and a Ph.D. in 1960 from IU. In the 1980s, Dr. Amara was a Senator in the Thai government and, from 1983 to 1986, served as Chief Advisor to the Prime Minister on political, administrative, foreign, and legal affairs. Among his many titles are Distinguished Professor Emeritus of NIDA, President of NIDA from 1985 to 1987, a Justice of the Constitutional Court of Thailand, and a Fellow of the Royal Institute at the Grand Palace in Bangkok.
         I was particularly delighted that, at the NIDA graduation ceremony, Dr. Amara received an honorary doctorate. For me, this was a wonderful reaffirmation of the friendship and cooperation that has been the hallmark of what Dr. Wells fondly called the “Bloomington–Bangkok axis.” In Spring 2001, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) conferred upon Dr. Amara the honorary Doctor of Laws degree. His enormous contribution to Thailand as an advisor to prime ministers and in the drafting of the country’s current constitution is legendary.
        Fifty years ago Indiana University was fortunate to have been involved at the inception of the Institute of Public Administration’s founding. Ten years later, IU was again fortunate to participate in the creation of NIDA itself, now the leading educational institution in Thailand for graduate education in national development. 
        Today, teaching about public administration in Thailand is primarily the domain of Thai scholars, as it should be. In contrasting U.S. and Thai bureaucracies, Dr. Uthai (1984:55-56) spoke of “two administrative environments with different structures and value orientations” and of the difficulty in transferring knowledge from one country to the other. By calling attention to different societies’ “indigenous knowledge” (1984:58), he understood well that the development of NIDA depended as much on its responsiveness to Thailand’s own cultural and social context as on imported, external models. In turn, U.S. scholars now recognize that they have much learn from Thai scholarship and administrative practices. While elements of U.S. and international public administration will continue to cross-fertilize public administration in Thailand, it must do so in partnership with Thai scholarship.
        When former IUP President John Ryan heard about the symposium to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the School of Public Administration, he commented: “The effectiveness of public administration efforts in interpreting the practical needs of the body politic in Thailand today are all the stronger because of the extraordinary record and level of achievement that has been accomplished by NIDA and IPA.”
        As the School of Public Administration celebrates this great milestone it must look to the next fifty years. In Thailand, as in many other parts of the world, sources of funding are changing, calling for imagination and innovation in order to continue serving new populations and new constituencies. Public administration at NIDA is uniquely poised to branch out in new directions not only within Thailand but within the greater Southeast Asian region. It has the human and physical resources to take the lead in dynamic and creative directions. Through new technologies, distance learning, short- and long-term training programs, and workshops and conferences, it can enhance its existing stature and make a decisive impact. I was particularly impressed with the resources at the School and its command of technology for instruction and outreach. As I was looking through Indiana University’s Archives and came across historic photographs of Thai classrooms as they were in the 1950s, I realized that no one then could have ever imagined the technical sophistication of today’s classrooms at the School. These capabilities, together with an outstanding staff and curriculum, will be valuable as NIDA and the School re-address their future mission. Of course, public administration must at the same time sustain its fundamental teaching and research missions. But here too, new approaches, new methods, and new theories will have to inform faculty research and teaching, as well as student learning.
        I have enormous confidence in NIDA and the School of Public Administration. Fifty years ago, Thai entrepreneurship and skill, coupled with American resources, opened up limitless opportunities. NIDA and the School must now use its rich experiences and legacies of the past as they explore the somewhat uncharted but promising, opportunities of the future.

References Cited
 Anon.“Contract Signed Tuesday for IU–Thailand Program.” Indiana Daily Student, May 4, 1955.
Indiana University 1954 “Program Concerning the Contract between Indiana University and the College of Education of Thailand through FOA.” International memorandum, September.
Indiana University 1955 “Memo on Meeting on Public Administration Contract.” Internal memorandum, March 28.
Karnjanaprakorn, Choop, Lawrence E. McKibben, and William N. Thompson 1974 NIDA: A Case Study in Institution Development. International Development Reearch Center, Indiana University.
Laohavichien, Uthai 1984  “The Problems and Prospects of Public Administration Education in Thailand,” Asian Journal of Public Administration 6(1): 46-60.
Raksasataya, Amara and Chirawan Bhakdbutr 1986 “IU-Thai Partnership,” Indiana Alumni Magazine, September, p. 10-11.
Siffin, William 1966 The Thai Bureaucracy: Institutional Change and Development. Honolulu: East-West Center Press.
Wells, Herman B 1980 Being Lucky: Reminiscences and Reflections. Indiana University Press.